by Matthew W. Daus, Esq.
President, International Association of Transportation Regulators
Distinguished Lecturer, University Transportation Research Center, Region 2
156 West 56th Street, New York, NY 10019
T. 212.237.1106 • F. 212.262.1215

Robert F. Bedford, Esq.

Special Counsel, Windels Marx Lane & Mittendorf, LLP
Former General Counsel, Nassau County Taxi & Limousine Commission


Deceptive TNC Fees – Overcharging Riders and Underpaying Drivers

Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, have recently come under fire for business practices involving fares, taxes and fees. Recently, for example, Lyft has been exposed for charging a fare that may not be compliant with various tax laws.

For every for hire trip conducted, Lyft’s application (app) applies a formula that is supposed to first, calculate the fare, then, deduct the percentage of the fare that Lyft retains for itself.[1] Taxes, such as sales tax, are to be assessed on top of the fare, with the cost being paid by the customer.[2]

The amounts of these deducted taxes and charges can vary depending on a number of factors, including:

  • relevant statutes,
  • where the trip originates, and
  • whether or not the trip carries across jurisdictional lines.

Ensuring that the fares are properly charged and taxes accurately collected falls squarely within allegedly improper TNC practices that have recently come to light. The TNC known as Lyft was recently accused by the Independent Drivers Guild[3] (the Guild) of improperly charging taxes on interstate trips, and then keeping the money.[4]

Every time a for-hire vehicle trip is conducted within the state of New York, a sales tax of 8.875% is charged on the fare,[5] and a 2.5% surcharge is assessed for the NY Black Car Fund to provide workers compensation coverage for drivers.[6] However, that tax is not supposed to apply on interstate for-hire trips.[7]

The Guild alleges that since Lyft entered the New York market, almost two and a half years ago, it has continued to add on additional charges of 8.875% and 2.5% on interstate trips and branding them as “surcharges.”[8] Lyft has denied any wrong doing, stating that they have complied with their driver agreement since entering the market.[9]

While this may or may not be true, due to the fact that the surcharges mirror the percentages listed above, it creates the appearance that Lyft may be charging unnecessary fees and surcharges disguised as mandatory taxes, and keeping the money as profit.

Lyft is not the only company facing allegations of this kind. Uber is also facing multiple allegations of misconduct regarding the charging of fares. In May of this year, a class action complaint was filed on behalf of all NY Uber X Riders against Uber and its embattled CEO Travis Kalanick. It alleges that the company was charging the rider more through the up-front pricing model then what the actual fare would be for the same trip booked through Uber’s standard model.[10]

Not long after, further allegations arose that Uber had been overcharging its drivers due to an “accounting error.”[11]Uber has since stated that it recently discovered the error wherein the company was charging its per-ride commission on an amount that included sales tax, rather than properly calculating its commission after the tax had been deducted.[12]

Making matters worse for the embattled TNC, it has since come to light that Uber possibly knew about the over-charging glitch as far back as 2015, and did nothing to correct the issue.[13]

Uber has since stated that they intend to pay the amounts back to the drivers, estimating that figure to be approximately $900 per driver. However, several drivers have indicated that they are owed significantly more than that amount.[14]This most recent suit follows not long after Uber agreed to pay $20 million to affected drivers to resolve Federal Trade Commission charges that Uber exaggerated earning potential and vehicle financing options for drivers.[15]

This is not the first time TNCs have faced civil litigation from their drivers over their business practices. Uber is currently facing a class action lawsuit against drivers from Massachusetts and California alleging that Uber misclassified its drivers as independent contractors rather than employees.

The lawsuit states that this misclassification denied them benefits traditionally afforded to employees such as overtime, as well as exerting control over whether or not drivers can accept tips or not.[16] In that action, the US District Court denied a $100 million settlement because it was unfair, and undervalued potential claims under California law. [17]

Lyft recently settled a suit regarding similar employee classification issues with its drivers in California for $27 million.[18] Both TNCs are facing litigation with its drivers in Austin over yet another business practice issue. The drivers are seeking 60 days back pay and benefits following both TNCs’ abrupt termination of service in Austin after an unsuccessful vote for the TNC’s regarding fingerprinting.[19]

Civil judgments are not the only financial hurdle TNC’s could be facing. As stated earlier, both the New York State General Business Law contains provisions to protect the public from deceptive or unfair trade practices.

The NY General Business Law holds that when the Attorney General believes “from evidence satisfactory to him” that a company or individual has engaged or is about to engage in deceptive acts or practices in the conduct of its business, then he can bring an action against that company to recover restitution for damaged parties.[20]

In addition to these civil damages, any company found to have engaged in any of these deceptive practices shall be liable for a civil penalty of up to $5,000 for each violation.[21] This means that in the event Uber and Lyft were found to have intentionally overcharged or improperly charged its drivers, the TNC’s could potentially face a civil fine of $5,000 for every driver they over charged.

In addition to regulations at the State level, the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission (TLC) enforces regulations prohibiting acts of misrepresentation[22], as well as willful acts of omission[23] and commission[24] that are against the public interest on the part of licensees. This includes Uber and Lyft, who possess base licenses in New York City.

Violations of these regulations can result in fines, suspension and even revocation of base licenses.[25]The TLC has in the past held public hearings and passed rules changes in regard to TNC business practices.[26]Following a petition from the Guild, the TLC is moving towards requiring TNC’s to include a tipping option in its app.[27]

It is evident that the business practices of Uber and Lyft have left the TNC’s embroiled in litigation with their drivers. Combine these actions with suits against the TNC’s from passengers regarding issues like accessibility and safety, both companies could be looking at costly civil awards or settlements.[28]

Combine that with the possible civil penalties listed above and Uber and Lyft could be facing a crippling financial blow as a result of, at best, negligent and at worst, intentionally deceptive business practices.

In addition to the threat of civil lawsuits and government investigations, the NYC Taxi and Limousine Commission (TLC) and other regulatory licensing agencies, might want to take a close look at whether they have violated various rules and whether they remain fit to hold base licenses as a result.

  2. Id. See also, Sales Tax Imposed on Certain Transportation Services, TSB-M-09(2)S and Additional Guidance relating to Sales Tax on Certain Transportation Services, TSB-M-09(7)S
  3. The Independent Drivers Guild is a Machinists Union project to organize and support app-based drivers.
  5. Sales Tax Imposed on Certain Transportation Services, TSB-M-09(2)S and Additional Guidance relating to Sales Tax on Certain Transportation Services, TSB-M-09(7)S 496843589-154559381.1493745289
  6. Chapter 49 of the Laws of 1999
  7. See Sales Tax Imposed on Certain Transportation Services, TSB-M-09(2)S and Additional Guidance relating to Sales Tax on Certain Transportation Services, TSB-M-09(7)S 72.1496843589-154559381.1493745289
  9. Id.
  13. Id.
  20. NY General Business Law, Article 22-A, §349; The Attorney General is granted fairly broad discretion under the statute to bring civil charges against any entity he or she believe is engaged in unfair or deceptive practices while in the conduct of its business.
  21. NY General Business Law, Article 22-A, §350
  22. NYC TLC Rules, Chapter 59 For-Hire Service, §59A-13(b)
  23. NYC TLC Rules, Chapter 59 For-Hire Service, §59A-13(c)
  24. NYC TLC Rules, Chapter 59 For-Hire Service, §59A-13(d)
  25. See footnotes 19-21
  27. Id.








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